Experts in advanced refrigeration and air-conditioning


The term HVAC is one of the most important terms when describing, understanding and explaining basic concepts related to the air conditioning of an area: regardless of whether it is in a home or a company. We will now give some necessary definitions therefore for understanding this concept and getting the most out of it in everything to do with air conditioning.

Meaning of HVAC

HVAC is an acronym for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. This is why we use these abbreviations to refer to all the terms necessary to consider and talk about the air conditioning of any space.

HVAC system components

To learn more about an HVAC system, we need to look at the different parts it is composed of:

1.- Exhaust vents

HVAC systems contain parts known as exhaust vents, which are responsible for the expulsion of all the fumes generated in the heating system itself. Regarding the maintenance of the exhaust vents in an HVAC system, it is always necessary (and on a regular basis, about once a year) to check the condition of the air ducts or the flue itself and to make any necessary repairs to them.

2.- Filter

The filter is the place where an HVAC system takes in air from outside. It is therefore essential to change the filters from time to time to avoid clogging and saturation. This will ensure adequate an air flow to the system.

3.- Electrical parts

This is the part of the HVAC system where energy exchange and management takes place in order to perform all the necessary functions. It is also the part of the system where most faults occur.

4.- HVAC ductwork

Ducts are a series of channels through which hot or cold air passes. It is imperative that these ducts are always cleaned within periods of two to five years in order for the entire system to function properly.

5.- External unit

This part is one of the most important and visible parts of the whole system. In fact, it is the only one that is usually known precisely because it is on the outside: it is an outdoor unit where the fan that drives the air flow of the entire system is located.

6.- HVAC system coils

The coils are another external part in the HVAC system, and consist of a series of loops that cool the air using liquid refrigerant. They also prevent the entire circuit from overheating.

7.- Compressor

The compressor is the part that supports the outdoor unit. It is specifically responsible for changing the refrigerant from a gaseous to a liquid state, and then sending it to the coils. It is therefore one of the essential items in the entire HVAC circuit. Along with the electrical system, it is the part where the highest number of faults usually occur in an HVAC system.

8.- Air return

As the name suggests, this part of the HVAC system is dedicated to making air flow back into the circuit.

9.- Blower

As a complement to the above, the blower takes hot air from the central point in a unit.

HVAC system operation

An HVAC system contains a gas that is compressed and thus increases in temperature. It is well known that an increase in gas pressure always means an increase in temperature and this is, in fact, the most important principle on which an HVAC system is based. Once it has been heated by pressure, it gradually cools down to become a liquid at a low temperature. It is precisely this liquid that moves through an expansion valve and eventually evaporates into a cold, low-pressure gas.

The next step is the gas being transported through vents while the whole system is in operation. The whole process is controlled by thermostats that stop the process or pause it whenever necessary.

HVAC system applications

HVAC systems have numerous applications. Some of the most important of these are listed below.

1.- Ventilation

This is the process of renewing air in any enclosed space. Air is brought in from outside in order to guarantee the quality of the air inside.

2.- Heating

The process by which heat is added to a room in order to increase its temperature. Here, more and more emphasis must be placed on efficiency. The process is carried out with a heat pump to supply energy, and with ventilation motors for extraction and supply.

3.- Cooling

Another major application of an HVAC system is cooling rooms. This can be done by using a compressor that turns a gas into a liquid and then expands it, or by nebulising water droplets in air flow so that they cool the air as they evaporate.

4.- Cleaning

An HVAC system can also take care of cleaning the air by filtering its particles, removing dust, pollen, etc. This is an increasingly important point, especially for people who live in cities or who have allergy problems.

5.- Dehumidification / Humidification

This consists of increasing or decreasing the humidity in a room to keep it at acceptable levels: something that is essential for good respiratory health and to prevent the appearance of mould and mildew.

6.- Air movement

This is the operation by which an HVAC system can transport air from the outside to the inside of a room in order to prevent draughts.

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